History is everywhere in the Middle East. Throughout the “Cradle of Civilization” lie remnants of many millennia of human activity, stuffed right into the hustle and bustle of modern-day life. I saw bits of this in Istanbul, with its Roman ruins and massive mosques, dating back centuries, but even that is small potatoes in this part of the world.
Let’s flash to Erbil (pronounced Air-beel. Also spelled Arbil or Irbil, or, in Kurdish, Hawler or Hewler and pronounced How-LAIR), the bustling capital of the Kurdish Autonomous Region in northern Iraq (also known as Iraqi Kurdistan). The massive Erbil Citadel dominates the skyline, with every street in the city radiating from its center. The citadel sits atop a tell, or a mound comprised of layers of many generations of human settlement. We’re talking so many generations here that the citadel is said to be the oldest continually inhabited place in the world, a fact that UNESCO backs!
The sediments in this mound are thought to date way back to the 5th Millennium BCE. That’s 7,000 years yo! And on top? The center of historic Erbil. A mini city unto itself, though the streets along the crumbling mud-brick houses are quiet these days. The citadel is now a ghost town. Closed for renovations in 2007, all but one family were evicted as to maintain its record for being continuously inhabited.
A visit to Erbil Citadel starts at the large bazaar at its base. An elaborate fountain leads the way to the entrance, as modern-looking structures form a wall around the citadel’s perimeter (my friend told me that these structures were built by Saddam Hussein’s administration).
Many of the side streets are currently roped off, their structures being gussied up in hopes of one day becoming a World Heritage Site. In the meantime, visitors can currently traverse the main street leading to the historic Mula Afandi Mosque, where the friendly Imam showed my friend and I around, even taking us up on the roof for some panoramic views of the closed-off streets.
As we got to talking to the Imam, he told us he was a Sufi, a mystical branch of Islam, and that his family had resided in the citadel for many generations, pointing out the house his father had once lived in. In exchanging names, he, like many people in the Middle East, had trouble pronouncing my name (Aaron, pronounced Air-en). I mentioned that it was the name of the brother of Moses and, excitedly, he said, “Ooooh, you mean Harun (Ha-roon)!” Sure, Harun!
As we said goodbye to the friendly Imam, we decided to take a peek at those now-abandoned houses. And sure, we found some squatters in ruin…
But we also found that many of the families that had once lived in the citadel were actually fairly well off. For many of the houses featured impressive courtyards!
And beyond those impressive courtyards lay some grand-looking buildings.
Some without four walls…
And many with impressive detail work, including built-in alcoves and nice tile and brickwork…
As we left, I couldn’t help but notice the houses that were on a level above the street. You could actually see the layers of sediments upon which they were built.
Stepping out of 7,000+ years of human history and back into the bustling market was, at this point, something fairly routine to me. After a month in the Middle East, the juxtaposition between old and new was nothing special. Though, in retrospect, the fact that you can step back thousands of years in just a few footsteps is pretty damn cool!
From there, it was off to watch the sunset over another nearby Erbil landmark…Minaret Park, featuring the broken 36-meter (118 foot) high Mudhafaria Minaret, which dates back to the 12th Century CE. It made for the perfect evening to a historic Erbil afternoon!
What About You?
Have you visited historic places that were otherwise abandoned? What were your experiences like?
Read More About My Adventure in Iraq
- So, What’s it Like to Travel in Iraq?
- Meet Kurdistan: The Other Iraq
- Is it Safe to Travel in Iraq?
- How to Cross From Turkey to Iraqi Kurdistan by Bus
- A Night at an Amusement Park in Iraq (With Video!)
- Inside Saddam Hussein’s House of Horrors
- Amadiya: A Charming Paradise in Iraqi Kurdistan
- Road Trip Iraq: Kurdistan’s GORGEOUS Hamilton Road
- How to Drive in Iraq
10 replies on “Photo Essay: Inside 7,000 Years of History at Erbil Citadel in Iraq”
impressive courtyards lay some grand-looking buildings.
hi,dear Aaron or Haroon,
I’m a tourism managment MA student.I live in Iran and have a tourism website.I was hanging around for some information about Erbil Citadel that faced your website. it’s so interesting and i like it. I would be happy to receive your new posts.
Thanks for stopping by Morvarid! Glad you found this useful. If you want to receive future posts, you can subscribe here using the box in the upper right corner: http://feeds.feedburner.com/AaronsWorldwideAdventures
thank you so much for that you showed positive and beautiful thought to other people about my wonderful city (Erbil)
Erbil is such a wonderfully historic city with such warm and wonderful people! I hope to make it back there sometime!
Great pictures and good write up on Erbil. Glad I found your page.
Thanks Aaron… for the pictures and reviews city Erbil, Kurdistan … turned out to be wonderful. I imagine the city was falling apart because of a prolonged war. And I was wrong .. Because I have new friends there and I want to know what kind of town
Well, funny thing is that while there’s been prolonged war in Iraq, there really hasn’t been prolonged war in Iraqi Kurdistan. And yes, it’s a beautiful and historic place!