Iraq Middle East 2012 Photos

Photo Essay: Inside 7,000 Years of History at Erbil Citadel in Iraq

History is everywhere in the Middle East. Throughout the “Cradle of Civilization” lie remnants of many millennia of human activity, stuffed right into the hustle and bustle of modern-day life. I saw bits of this in Istanbul, with its Roman ruins and massive mosques, dating back centuries, but even that is small potatoes in this part of the world.

Let’s flash to Erbil (pronounced Air-beel. Also spelled Arbil or Irbil, or, in Kurdish, Hawler or Hewler and pronounced How-LAIR), the bustling capital of the Kurdish Autonomous Region in northern Iraq (also known as Iraqi Kurdistan). The massive Erbil Citadel dominates the skyline, with every street in the city radiating from its center. The citadel sits atop a tell, or a mound comprised of layers of many generations of human settlement. We’re talking so many generations here that the citadel is said to be the oldest continually inhabited place in the world, a fact that UNESCO backs!

Image Credit: Wikipedia

The sediments in this mound are thought to date way back to the 5th Millennium BCE. That’s 7,000 years yo! And on top? The center of historic Erbil. A mini city unto itself, though the streets along the crumbling mud-brick houses are quiet these days. The citadel is now a ghost town. Closed for renovations in 2007, all but one family were evicted as to maintain its record for being continuously inhabited.

Erbil Citadel

A visit to Erbil Citadel starts at the large bazaar at its base. An elaborate fountain leads the way to the entrance, as modern-looking structures form a wall around the citadel’s perimeter (my friend told me that these structures were built by Saddam Hussein’s administration).

Street in Erbil Citadel

Many of the side streets are currently roped off, their structures being gussied up in hopes of one day becoming a World Heritage Site. In the meantime, visitors can currently traverse the main street leading to the historic Mula Afandi Mosque, where the friendly Imam showed my friend and I around, even taking us up on the roof for some panoramic views of the closed-off streets.

Mosque at Erbil's Citadel

Overlooking Erbil Citadel

As we got to talking to the Imam, he told us he was a Sufi, a mystical branch of Islam, and that his family had resided in the citadel for many generations, pointing out the house his father had once lived in. In exchanging names, he, like many people in the Middle East, had trouble pronouncing my name (Aaron, pronounced Air-en). I mentioned that it was the name of the brother of Moses and, excitedly, he said, “Ooooh, you mean Harun (Ha-roon)!” Sure, Harun!

Street in Erbil Citadel

As we said goodbye to the friendly Imam, we decided to take a peek at those now-abandoned houses. And sure, we found some squatters in ruin…

Construction at Erbil Citadel

A Building in Ruin

But we also found that many of the families that had once lived in the citadel were actually fairly well off. For many of the houses featured impressive courtyards!

Building in Erbil Citadel

Building in Erbil Citadel

Courtyard in a Building at Erbil Citadel

And beyond those impressive courtyards lay some grand-looking buildings.

Building in Erbil Citadel

Some without four walls…

Building in Erbil Citadel

And many with impressive detail work, including built-in alcoves and nice tile and brickwork…

Detail Inside a Building in Erbil's Citadel

Tile Work at Erbil Citadel

Detail on a Building at Erbil Citadel

As we left, I couldn’t help but notice the houses that were on a level above the street. You could actually see the layers of sediments upon which they were built.

Street in Erbil Citadel

Stepping out of 7,000+ years of human history and back into the bustling market was, at this point, something fairly routine to me. After a month in the Middle East, the juxtaposition between old and new was nothing special. Though, in retrospect, the fact that you can step back thousands of years in just a few footsteps is pretty damn cool!

Looking Out Over the Market

From there, it was off to watch the sunset over another nearby Erbil landmark…Minaret Park, featuring the broken 36-meter (118 foot) high Mudhafaria Minaret, which dates back to the 12th Century CE. It made for the perfect evening to a historic Erbil afternoon!

Sunset at Minaret Park

What About You?

Have you visited historic places that were otherwise abandoned? What were your experiences like?

Read More About My Adventure in Iraq


By Aaron

Hey there! I'm Aaron and this is my travel site, where I document my adventures to all corners of the world. My love for travel started at the ripe old age of four, when a midlife crisis uprooted my family to Ecuador for five years. Since then, I've been to countries on 4 different continents. When I'm not blissfully on the road, I reside in New York City, where I become the ultimate travel junkie and spend my days dreaming up my next great adventure! Read More...

10 replies on “Photo Essay: Inside 7,000 Years of History at Erbil Citadel in Iraq”

hi,dear Aaron or Haroon,
I’m a tourism managment MA student.I live in Iran and have a tourism website.I was hanging around for some information about Erbil Citadel that faced your website. it’s so interesting and i like it. I would be happy to receive your new posts.
good luck

thank you so much for that you showed positive and beautiful thought to other people about my wonderful city (Erbil)

Thanks Aaron… for the pictures and reviews city Erbil, Kurdistan … turned out to be wonderful. I imagine the city was falling apart because of a prolonged war. And I was wrong .. Because I have new friends there and I want to know what kind of town

Well, funny thing is that while there’s been prolonged war in Iraq, there really hasn’t been prolonged war in Iraqi Kurdistan. And yes, it’s a beautiful and historic place!

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